Mesopotamia , where is the oldest of the oriental civilization was born in the fertile soil was made the capital of the Islam in the caliphe Hz.Ali period. Baghdad had its golden age and it was the world's business and cultural center in the era of Omayyads and Abbasids. This İslamic city was basic of the İslamic civizilation in some areas. Such as astronomy , physic and literature. Until the Mongol invasion crashes the region like nightmare. Genghis Khan's grandson Hulagu's army did not sacked only rich Abbasi cities. They also sacked a huge civizilation. Thousands priceless manuscripts of ink of the Baghdad library has painted not only Tigris River also history of Iraq.
Sunni - Shiite Separation was apparent the first time in Safavids and Aqqoyunlu dynasties period by following 200 years Mongol invasion. IV. Murad would cease change hands between the Ottoman-Persian dynasties in next centuries and Iraq would remain is an Ottoman province until the First World War. British officer Sykes and French officer Pikot had created two new countries by drawing maps when the last Ottoman troops were withdrawing from the region in 1916. By agreement of given their names , Iraq was becoming British and Syria was becoming French colony. Two great powers of the period has started bloody incidents by making this agreement which was not considering their ethnic and sectarian differences in Iraq.
Until the Second World War the British managed Iraq with King Faisal and their sons. Factions generals of Iraq army have choosed Iraqs fate at these years. Iraq was the scene of the pro Nazi and British coups during the II.World War. Also Iraq followed neutral policy like Turkey. While British activity was decreasing in the Middle East , The USA and Soviet Russia filled the gap. In 1958 , After bloody coup of General Abdul Karim Qasim's , nationalism and communism began to spread rapidly. The USA became uneasy of this situation and launched Communist hunt in the country by causing bloody military coup of General Abdul Salam Arif. After the defeat in the six days war againts Israel , General Arif left his place to Baath party by bloodless coup in 1968. Baath party based on Arab nationalism. Two ambitious commander and member of Baath party , Hasan al Bakr and Saddam Hussein's seized the country's government stripped out of the other fellow.
In the 1970s, Iraq was a one-party state, directed by two generals. Baath party decided to establish good relations with Kurds and Communists in order to expand their impact areas. But relations were broken in the following years and Iraq became a one-party dictatorship. In 1979, Hasan al-Bakr resigned from office due to the age of him thus Saddam Hussein handed over all powers. First act was of reckless general declare war on Iran which had a regime changing newly. Two Muslim countries has fought eachother for eight years with USA and Soviet guns but winner didnt come out.
By the end of the cold war in 1990's , world order was changing. Despite of long and weary war , Saddam regime which became stronger with Western weapons had invaded Kuwait on the excuse oil quota. By the oil revenues falling in danger The USA and Western powers decided to stop his monster which is created with his own hands. Alliance forces in the Gulf War , known as the " Desert Fox " liberated Kuwait. The answer of Saddam regime was a brutal massacre. Thousunds of Kurds were murdered by Iraqi forces. Two million Kurds have survived from massacre and fled to Iran and Turkey. 2001 would be the beginning of the end of Iraq which was bombed several times by the Allies.
After 9/11 attacks , George W. Bush has decided to complete his fathers mission and attacked Iraq. Saddam Hussein left his behind a shattered nation and country when he was hanged in a dark place by US soldiers. According to official sources , more than million Iraqis were killed and had to leave from their counrty since 2001. New Iraq goverment failed to provide authority in the country by remain under secterian conflicts and oil bargaining disputes. Isıs terror which was derived from this chaos swamp captured many cities by crushed poor Iraq army. The current situation is that a proxy of war of terror groups which is given by big countries and a geography which has turned into a wreck.
Unfortunatelly , Iraq's current situation is embarrassing. I think it is a duty for humanity that Iraq 's return to the former glory days. We must not forget thah , If Iraq does not have a conversion , The Middle East will not able to get rid of the darkness. While I am finishing my article , I wish a peaceful country for all ethnic groups of Iraq